Cliviger Valley has a colourful history with geological processes being central to the valleys human and industrial evolution.
In 1627 lead was discovered in the vicinity of Thieveley Farm on Dean Scout. The shafts of Thieveley Lead Mine lay immediately behind the farm. The mine was worked unsuccessfully for King Charles I from 1629 - 1635. The area by the main A646 trunk road is locally known as Cliviger Dean. "Crossing of Dean" is the watershed from which the Lancashire and Yorkshire Calders flow in opposite directions.
Besides lead mining, iron mining has an equally fascinating story to tell. Iron ore was discovered and extracted from siderite nodules present in the marine black shales on Riddle Scout (as reported by John Aitken (a Bacup geologist) 1878 paper entitled On the discovery of an ancient ironmine on Ruddle Scout, Cliviger). Following lead and iron mining, and certainly much more recently, coal was mined from four commercially viable seams - the Dandy Mine, the Arley Mine, the Upper Mountain Mine and the Union Mine. Cliviger Valley was the home to two notable coal mines - Copy Pit and the Union Pit.
Interesting geological localities can be found in the Cliviger Valley. Ratten Clough and Pudsey Clough introduce you to typical Namurian and Lower Coal Measures geology. For those interested in industrial archaeology and geology, the now derelict Thieveley Farm is the site of early lead mining, whilst Sheddon Clough is home to fascinating ancient limestone extracting industry.
A guide to the geology of the Cliviger Valley, near Burnley, Lancashire. 1956. I.A.Williamson PYGS Vol.30, Pt.4., No.21 pp.375-406
"The Carboniferous (Namurian and Westphalian) of the Cliviger Valley, Todmorden." in Yorkshire Rocks And Landscape: a Field Guide Edited by Colin Scrutton, 1994 . Paul Wignall (University of Leeds) and Paul Kabrna (CPGS). Published by the Yorkshire Geological Society (Due for a new print-run in 2006).