Indoor Meetings for 2014 - 15

Field Meetings for 2015

Friday: 10 October
The Dent Marble Industry.
Bill Fraser, Leeds Geological Association

Friday: 14 November
Fracking – a geological perspective.
John Midgley, Energy Geoscience International Ltd

12 December
Members Evening.

9 January
The Great Tohoku Earthquake of 2011 – the geological event and its impact on research.
Lesley Collins, CPGS

13 February
The First Mass Extinction - massive volcanism, environmental change and mass extinction in Cambrian series 2 & 3.
Luke Faggetter, University of Leeds

13 March
A long-term perspective on volcanic ash clouds over northern Europe.
Elizabeth Watson, University of Leeds

10 April
When hippos roamed Yorkshire - People, prey and predators in the Last Interglacial.
Eline van Asperen Ph.D., John Moores University, Liverpool

Sun. 17 May
Carboniferous rocks along the southern margin of the Askrigg Block near Settle, North Yorkshire.
Guide: Paul Kabrna & Paul Wignall

Fri - Sun. 19 to 21 June
The Isle of Bute.
Guides: Lesley Collins and Paul Kabrna.

Sun 2 August
Cliviger / Todmorden.
Guides: Nigel and George Price.

Sun 16 August
Geology of the Carrock Fell area, the Lake District.
Guides: Paul Kabrna and Lesley Collins.

Sat 5 September
Eden Valley.
Guides: Karen Ashworth and Steve Birch.


Carboniferous rocks along the southern margin of the Askrigg Block near Settle, North Yorkshire

Paul Kabrna

Purpose: To examine the Carboniferous rocks at the southern margin of the Askrigg Block along the line of the Mid-Craven Fault. The  excursion will also include a visit to Victoria Cave.

Meeting Place: A small number of cars can be parked along the roadside verge on High Hill Lane about 1½ km east of Settle adjacent to Stockdale Lane [SD 836 630].

Logistics: The itinerary covers around c. 8 km and lies entirely within the Yorkshire National Park. The use of a hammer at localities is discouraged. Hiking boots or stout shoes are advised along with suitable weather-proof clothing. Walking is relatively easy. Bring a packed lunch.

Geological Background: The Mississippian (Lower Carboniferous) palaeogeography of the north of England was greatly influenced by structurally controlled blocks of Lower Palaeozoic basement. The Mid Craven Fault marks the southern edge of one of these blocks, (the Askrigg Block) separating carbonate shelf limestones from the Cracoen 'reef' limestones (Late Visean stage), and deeper water shales of the Craven Basin. These basinal shales were subsequently covered by the advancing Pendle Grit deltas, the oldest sandstone body in the Millstone Grit Group (Namurian stage).
Victoria Cave has become the most important historic cave in the British Isles. The cave has been designated a Scheduled Ancient Monument (SAM) and a Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI) for amongst other things it's variety of mammalian faunas, and Roman artifacts. The cave is filled with Quaternary clastic sediments.

1:25000 Outdorr Leisure Map 10, Yorkshire Dales - Southern Area

B.G.S. 1:50000 Sheet 60, Settle

Arthurton et al. 1988: Geology of the country around Settle. Memoir of the British Geological Survey.

Mundy, D. J. C. 2000: Field meeting to the Craven Reef Belt: Settle & Cracoe. Yorkshire Geological Society.

Waltham, T. and Lowe, D. (Eds.) 2013: Caves and Karst of the Yorkshire Dales. British Cave Research Association.

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The Isle of Bute

Lesley Collins & Paul Kabrna

Barnoldswick to Wemyss Bay 215 miles via M6/M74/M8, about 4 hrs drive time.

Ferry from Wemyss Bay to Rothesay, @ 10.00, 12.00, 13.05, 14.05, 15.00, 16.45, 17.30, 18.15, 19.00, 19.45, Mon-Fri & 20.45 (Fri only), 35 mins sailing time

Fares:  £35.00 for a 5-day return, car + driver, passenger £8.75 return
Return on Sunday @ 13.00, 14.00, 15.10, 16.00, 16.45, 17.30, 18.15, 19.00, 19.45

Planned Excursions
The Isle of Bute is about 15 miles long by 4 miles wide.  All excursion sites are easily accessible from Rothesay and have parking facilities.

Friday 19 June

Balnakailly Bay

Meet 2pm at Ferry Slip car park. The walk covers < 1 mile round trip from Rhubodach Ferry slip road. Things to see - Dalradian schists with folding, glacial striations, and splendid views to the Burnt Islands & Kyles of Bute.

Loch Fad
Circa 1 mile round trip across causeway and along Loch shore. Geological highlights inc. Dalradian schists (Precambrian), Highland Boundary Fault, Old Red Sandstone Conglomerates with Ordovician pillow lavas.

Saturday 20 June

Meet at 9.30 am at the end of Kilchattan road at Grid Ref [108 545] for a 4 mile round trip along the coast mostly on a raised beach. Things to see - Columnar sandstone (unique site in UK), Old Red sandstone, an Agglomerate vent, Ultrabasic intrusion (unique site in UK), Carboniferous lavas, a Tertiary sill. Also superb views to the Cumbraes and Scottish mainland.

LUNCH - either packed lunch or pop into the Kingarth pub en-route to Dunagoil.

A 1 mile round trip along the beach. Things to see - Volcanic vents, Carboniferous lavas on ORS, ‘Pillow lavas’ & Columnar jointing. Excllent views to the Isle of Arran.

Sunday 21 June

Scalpsie Bay
Meet at 9.30 am at car park on the A844 at Grid ref. [060 587] for 2 mile round trip walking along the beach. Things to see - Highland Boundary Fault, Serpentinite outcrops, ORS, fossil sea-cliffs, large Tertiary dyke, and The Haystack. More great views to the Isle of Arran and seals on the beach.

For info on accommodation,

Rothesay has the Esplanade gardens on the seafront and the Tourist office which is located in the Winter Garden Pavilion is well worth a visit.  There is a Castle in Rothesay and the Bute Museum for Natural and Historical Heritage.  Most visitors to the Island head for Mount Stuart, home of the Marquis of Bute - , Ascog fernery - & Ardencraig Gardens

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Cliviger / Todmorden

Nigel & George Price

The walk will give you the full meal of the business end of the Carboniferous with some interesting exposures of the Millstone Grit Group, complete with plant fossils, a view of one of the very few working Gritstone quarries, followed by a trip up through the coal measures, starting at the boundary between the Millstone Grit Group and the Coal Measures, seeing one of the few proper exposures of a coal seam. There will also be the ouroboros coal measure cylcotherm to see including a seat earth complete with plant rootlets and an opportunity to find a marine band. We will top it all off with some good 3D exposures of a deltaic environment with yet more plant fossils. There are also a number of disused mine workings on Todmorden Moor where the mythical coal ball lives and some good views of the Upper Calder Valley where the geology is laid out before us. All this and still time to get home for tea!

The trip will be broken into two sections; first a visit to a small private working Gritstone Quarry and a typical Gritstone “Tor” between Todmorden and Hebden Bridge with great views over Calderdale and secondly to Todmorden Moor to the west of Todmorden. The second part follows the Todmorden Moor Geology Trail on the watershed between Todmorden and Bacup.

Meet at Great Rock for 10.00 am on the Sunday morning. We should be there for around one hour, with a 15 minute drive to Todmorden Moor. Start the second itinerary around 11.30am. Please bring a packed lunch and we will stop part way around the geology trail. We estimate two to three hours for the second itinerary, finishing around 2.30 pm.

The morning walk is along a rough track, although we have to wriggle around a locked gate. (Don’t worry we have permission.) The afternoon walking is all on paths and lanes, but conditions underfoot will be slippery and boggy in places, so we suggest good walking boots. With 56 inches of rainfall per annum, Todmorden is not famous for being dry, so the usual waterproofs are necessary and, as it can be exposed on Todmorden Moor, warm clothes. Having said that given that it is August we had better cover all of the options so bring sunscreen and a hat if the weather looks clement.

Getting There
Great Rock [SD95933 26286] Most people will be arriving in Todmorden from the Burnley direction. When you arrive at Todmorden town centre you will meet a mini roundabout with the Town Hall on your left. Turn left onto the A626 for Hebden Bridge and Halifax. After 0.4 miles you will pass a Shell Petrol station on the right hand side. Continue for another 0.1 mile and turn left up Cross Stone Road. Follow this to the top. Please note that this is steep. At the top the main road swings to the right. Follow this for 1.3 miles until you arrive at an uphill T junction at Eastwood Road. Turn right for 0.1 mile to Great Rock – a large gritstone outcrop by the road. There is roadside parking in the area, but be mindful there is traffic and farm vehicles that need to get about. We will meet by Great Rock. The walk to the quarry is 650 m along a track.

Aitkenhead, N, Barclay, WJ, Brandon, A, Chadwick, RA, Chisholm, JI, Cooper, AH, and Johnson, EW. 2002: British regional geology: the Pennines and adjacent areas (Fourth edition). British Geological Survey, Nottingham.

Cleal, CJ, and Thomas, BA. 1996: British Upper Carboniferous Stratigraphy. Geological Conservation review Series , No. 11, Chapman & Hall, London Ch. 1.p. 3-13.

Hampson, GJ. 1997: A sequence stratigraphic model for deposition of the Lower Kinderscout Delta, an Upper Carboniferous turbidite-fronted delta. Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society, v. 51, p. 273-296.

Jowett, A. 1914: The Glacial Geology of East Lancashire. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society; v70; p. 199-231.

Martill, DM, Del Strother, PJA, and Gallien, F.2013: Acanthorhachis, a new genus of shark from the Carboniferous (Westphalian) of Yorkshire, England. Geol. Mag: page 1 of 17 Cambridge University Press.

Scott, AC, and Rex, G. 1985: The formation and significance of Carboniferous coal balls, Phil. Transactions of the Royal .Society, .London. B311, p.123-137.

Waters, CN, Carboniferous geology of northern England, British Geological Survey.

West Yorkshire Geology Trust The Geology of Calderdale Leaflet (undated).

West Yorkshire Geology Trust 2014: Todmorden Moor Geology and Heritage Trail Leaflet.

Wright, WB, Sherlock, RL, Wray, A, Lloyd, W, and Tonks, LH. 1927: Geology of the Rossendale Anticline. Memoir of the Geological Survey, HMSO..

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Geology of the Carrock Fell area, the Lake District

Paul Kabrna & Lesley Collins

Time / Date: 10.30 on the 16 August 2015

Meet at: Grid Ref. [NY 335 326 ] adjacent to the River Caldew in Swineside Valley just beyond Roundhouse, Mosedale. Carry packed lunch and be prepared for any inclement weather. There will be time an opportunity to visit the Mill Inn at Mungrisdale for refreshments. Packed lunch advised as pub could be very busy.

Geological setting
The Lower Palaeozoic rocks of the Lake District record the rifting of ancient continents during the closure of the Iapetus Ocean. This seaway separated Gondwana (south) and Laurussia (north). Large volumes of granitic magma (Eskdale and Ennerdale) were generated in response to subduction of the Iapetus oceanic crust. At a later date the Shap and Skiddaw granites were emplaced around the margins of the batholith.

The Carrock Fell Complex was emplaced at the junction between the Skiddaw Group and Eycott Volcanic Group and is the largest mafic mass in the Lake District. The earliest intrusion, the Mosedale Gabbros, forms the southern part of the complex and comprises layered cumulate rocks intruded as a subhorizontal sill at the base of the Eycott Volcanic Group. Cutting the Mosedale Gabbros with a near-vertical, crosscutting intrusive contact are the Carrock Intrusions. These comprise a main mass of micrographic microgranite (commonly known as the Carrock Granophyre).

Locality 1: Caldew River at the confluence with Grainsgill Beck and Carrock Mine: [NY 335 326]

Locality 2: Mungrisdale - School House Quarry: [NY 363 306]

Locality 3: Mosedale Moss Gabbro Quarry: [NY 357 325]

Locality 4: Between Further Gill Syke and Apronful of Stones: [NY 355 343]

Locality 5: Rospow Hills Ford, Carrock Beck [NY 347 351]

Locality 6: Long Hill: [NY 354 346]

O.S. Map - 1: 25 000 Outdoor Leisure Map, English Lakes, North Western Area

Geology Map - 1:50 000 BGS Solid and Drift. Sheet 23

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Eden Valley

Karen Ashworth & Steve Birch

Time / Date: 10.30 on Saturday, 5 September

Meet at: Grid Ref. [NY 689 249 ]. Dufton village car park has toilet facilities and parking is also available along the roads in the village.  Packed lunch is required but there is a small shop selling sandwiches etc. Travel time to site approx. two hours from Colne using the M65/M6 (to Junction 38) Tebay to Appleby (B6260) then pick up signs for Dufton.

There is a track the whole way around the site which can be rough and muddy in places.  The track is moderate to steepish and exposed along most of the route therefore good walking boots and weather-proof clothing may be required.

Dufton is in the North Pennines Area of Outstanding natural Beauty (AONB), and European and Global Geopark. The landscape in Dufton dates back to Lower Palaeozoic times, and includes Carboniferous and Permo-Triassic rocks - all draped in glacial sediments from the last Ice Age. Dufton Pike, and to the north Knock Pike, are remnants from the creation of the Pennine Fault. Formed of the ash (tuff) from the Borrowdale volcanic period. In the 18th and 19th centuries Dufton was also a busy mining village focusing in on lead and barytes.

Useful Maps
O.S. Maps
1:50000 Landranger 91 Appleby in Westmorland
1:25000 Explorer OL 19 Howgill Fells and Upper Eden Valley

British Geological Survey
1:50000 Geological Sheets 31 (Brough-under-Stainmore) and 30 (Appleby)
1:25000 Cross Fell Inlier Classical areas Map

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